Classic/Traditional vs Modified/Mainstream (4:1 vs 2:1)
The classic keto diet consists of a ratio in grams of fat to nonfat (protein and carbs) of 4:1 and 3:1 – now popular keto diet is slightly modified and consists of ratios of 2:1 and 1:1
* 90% fats, 10% protein, less than 1% carbs*
The problem with this diet for anything other than medical use is obvious: protein intake is very low, which isn’t optimal as proteins are the primary building blocks of the body. They’re used to build tissues like muscle, tendon, organ, and skin, as well as many other molecules vital to life such as hormones, enzymes, and various brain chemicals. It has been found that a ketogenic state can still be maintained with an increase in protein and a slight bump in carbs. The type of ketogenic diets popular today are generally high-protein variations of the original – Protein recommendations can vary, ranging from 20 – 30% of daily calories, but carb intake is set to 50 grams or less per day, with the rest of your calories coming from dietary fat.
Ketosis and Disease Treatment:
The ketogenic diet is well established as therapy for many disease states and should be considered first-line therapy in glucose transporter type 1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. The ketogenic diet appears effective in other metabolic conditions, including phosphofructokinase deficiency and glycogenosis type V (McArdle disease). It appears to function in these disorders by providing an alternative fuel source. A growing body of literature suggests the ketogenic diet may be beneficial in certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In these disorders, the ketogenic diet appears to be neuroprotective, promoting enhanced mitochondrial function and rescuing adenosine triphosphate production. Dietary therapy is a promising intervention for cancer, given that it may target the relative inefficiency of tumors in using ketone bodies as an alternative fuel source.
A study published in the journal The Lancet Neurology, in 2008, showed the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in children. In 145 children, aged 2 to 16 years old, who had at least daily seizures and had failed to respond to at least 2 antiepileptic drugs for 3 months, the mean percentage of baseline seizures was significantly lower in the diet group than in the control group (62% vs 137%, 75% decrease) Twenty-eight children (38%) in the diet group had greater than 50% seizure reductions compared with 4 (6%) controls, and 5 children (7%) in the diet group had greater than 90% seizure reductions compared with no controls.
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4) Neal EG , et al. (n.d.). The ketogenic diet for the treatment of childhood epilepsy: a randomised controlled trial. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18456557
5) The Ketogenic Diet: Uses in Epilepsy and Other Neurologic Illnesses. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2898565/
6) Ketogenic diet for treatment of epilepsy. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2902940/#b11-0560540