Are Eggs Killing Us on Keto? 2019 Study Results

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Are Eggs Killing Us on Keto? 2019 Study Results – Thomas DeLauer

Eggs & Cholesterol (2019 Study)

Study – JAMA Network

The study pooled 29 615 adults from 6 prospective cohort studies in the US using data, collected between March 25, 1985, and August 31, 2016, with a median follow-up of 17.5 years
It was found that each additional 300 mg of dietary cholesterol consumed per day was significantly associated with higher risk of incident CVD

More specifically, they found a 6% increased risk of cardiovascular disease when the average number of eggs consumed per day went up by half an egg

Or if you consumed two eggs per day, there was a 27% increased risk of developing heart disease, and an 18% increased risk of premature death from any cause

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2728487?resultClick=1 />
Problems

This new study is an observational study, so it doesn’t prove that cholesterol caused the increased risk of heart disease that the researchers documented

The participants were asked only one time about their diets (self-reports about what people ate), which only provides one snapshot which may not have accurately captured their eating habits over time

The researchers also relied on a single measurement of egg and dietary cholesterol consumption, even though diets can change over time (i.e. a person was eating 2 eggs per day at the time of questionnaire, and presumed to have continued that for the reminder of the study)

Dietary Cholesterol & Blood Levels

Study – The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

A study conducted by a team of researchers at the University of Sydney, published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, found that the consumption of eggs does not affect the heart’s health

In the study, 140 people with type 2 or prediabetes consumed 12 eggs a week for a year as per the requirements of the study

At the end of the 12 months, neither group’s cardiovascular risk factors had turned for the worse, and they’d both lost similar amounts of weight — up to about 5kg

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/107/6/921/4992612?redirectedFrom=fulltext />
Cholesterol Absorption

Only free or unesterified cholesterol (UC) can be absorbed through gut enterocytes – in other words, cholesterol esters (CE) cannot be absorbed because of the bulky side chains they carry

More than 50% of the cholesterol ingested from food is esterified (CE), hence we don’t actually absorb much exogenous cholesterol

https://peterattiamd.com/the-straight-dope-on-cholesterol-part-i/

Oxidized LDL & Inflammation

As LDLs encounter free radicals, which are unstable molecules driven to become balanced by bonding with other molecules, the two combine through a chemical reaction called oxidation

When that happens, the LDLs – now called oxidized LDLs – are damaged, which triggers inflammation and attracts white blood cells called macrophages

Macrophages engulf oxidized LDLs, forming new fat-filled cells, which aggregate, stick to blood vessel walls and become plaque

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6024687/
1) Cholesterol, lipoproteins and the liver. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://courses.washington.edu/conj/bess/cholesterol/liver.html
2) Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review. – PubMed – NCBI. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27292972
3) Plasma lipids and cerebral small vessel disease. – PubMed – NCBI. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25320101
4) We have got cholesterol completely wrong – Zoë Harcombe. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.zoeharcombe.com/the-knowledge/we-have-got-cholesterol-completely-wrong/
5) Did You Know… That Inflammation Might be the Real Cause of Heart Attacks? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cardiachealth.ca/templates/content/pages/didyouknow34.html
6) What Is the real cause of heart disease? | Cholesterol or inflammation. (2017, December 29). Retrieved from https://www.docsopinion.com/2012/06/03/what-is-the-real-cause-of-heart-disease/
7) Attia, P. (2018, February 12). The straight dope on cholesterol ? Part I. Retrieved from https://peterattiamd.com/the-straight-dope-on-cholesterol-part-i/
8) Oxidation of LDL-Cholesterol | Internet Stroke Center. (2018, March 22). Retrieved from http://www.strokecenter.org/professionals/brain-anatomy/atherosclerosis-and-thrombus-formation/oxidation-of-ldl-cholesterol/
9) What Is the Difference Between LDL and Oxidized LDL? (2014, February 10). Retrieved from http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/difference-between-ldl-oxidized-ldl-11036.html

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